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5g hasn't been used yet, 6G has started!

Author: Shenzhen Science and technology time: November 11, 2019 source: egibl.com
Abstract: according to foreign media reports recently, Huawei laboratory in Ottawa, Canada, has begun to develop 6G technology. In June this year, Nokia, Ericsson and SK Telecom announced the establishment of a strategic partnership to work together on

According to foreign media reports recently, Huawei laboratory in Ottawa, Canada, has begun to develop 6G technology. In June this year, Nokia, Ericsson and SK Telecom announced the establishment of a strategic partnership to jointly work on the development of 6G.

In July 2018, ITU established the 2030 network technology research group. At present, the United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Finland and other countries have embarked on the 6G R & D track. In February this year, US President trump tweeted: "I want 5g or even 6G to enter the United States as soon as possible." Less than a month later, the United States began to deploy 6G research.

       As early as March 2018, Miao Wei, Minister of the Ministry of industry and information technology, mentioned in an interview that China had started to study 6G at the beginning of 2018. In December 2018, nine enterprises including China Mobile, China Unicom, China Telecom, China Academy of communications, Huawei, ZTE, Datang, oppo and vivo have jointly started the project "vision and demand of post 5g system".

It is not difficult to see that 6G has become the next target of global communication industry.

       What is 6G?

6G is the sixth generation mobile communication technology. 6G will be a connected world with integrated terrestrial wireless and satellite communications. By integrating satellite communication into 6G mobile communication, the global seamless coverage can be realized. Network signals can reach any remote village, so that patients in the deep mountain areas can receive telemedicine and children can receive distance education. In addition, under the global satellite network, 6G satellite network and other satellite systems can support the rapid response to disasters under the global satellite network. This is the future of 6G. 6G communication technology is no longer a simple breakthrough in network capacity and transmission rate. It is more to narrow the digital divide and realize the "ultimate goal" of interconnection of all things, which is the significance of 6G.

Ms. rosenz said that "the United States mobile 6G frequency band will be used to the highest level in the United States in September."

       What is terahertz?

Terahertz band refers to 100GHz ~ 10THz, which is much higher than 5g frequency. From 1g communication frequency (0.9ghz) to 4G frequency (above 1.8GHz), the wireless frequency we use is increasing. Because the higher the frequency is, the larger the bandwidth range is allowed to be allocated, and the greater the amount of data that can be transmitted per unit time, which is commonly referred to as "faster network speed".

However, another main reason for the development of frequency band is that the resources of low frequency band are limited. Just like a highway, even if it is wide, it can hold a limited number of cars. When the road is not enough, the vehicles will be blocked and unable to travel freely. At this time, it is necessary to consider developing another road.

The same is true of spectrum resources. With the increase of the number of users and intelligent devices, the limited spectrum bandwidth needs to serve more terminals, which will lead to a serious decline in the quality of service of each terminal. The development of new communication bandwidth is a feasible solution.

       Why will 6G network be "densified"?

This involves the coverage of the base station, that is, the transmission distance of the base station signal. Generally speaking, there are many factors that affect the coverage of the base station, such as the frequency of the signal, the transmission power of the base station, and the height of the base station. As far as the frequency of the signal is concerned, the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength. Therefore, the diffraction ability of the signal (also known as diffraction, when an obstacle is encountered in the process of electromagnetic wave propagation, when the size of the obstacle is close to the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave, the electromagnetic wave can diffract from the edge of the object, and diffraction can help to cover the shadow area), the worse and the greater the loss. This loss will increase with the increase of transmission distance, and the coverage range of base station will decrease accordingly. The frequency of 6G signal is already at the terahertz level, and this frequency has entered the spectrum of molecular rotational energy level, and it is easy to be absorbed by water molecules in the air. Therefore, the distance of propagation in space is not as far as 5g signal. 6G needs more base station "relay".

5g uses a higher frequency band than 4G. Without considering other factors, the coverage of 5g base station is naturally smaller than that of 4G. When the frequency band is higher than 6G, the coverage of base station will be smaller. 4G base stations will be more dense than 5g base stations.

       Can 6G buy online with ideas?

This bold imagination sounds like a scene from a science fiction movie. In his paper "communication technology of Beijing 6G", Professor Zhang Ping thinks that communication technology will be closely linked. In the 6G era, the further development of AI will realize the extension from the real world to the virtual world. In other words, through AR / VR, AI, 6G and other technologies, the real world can be sampled, transmitted and reconstructed into a virtual world, and people can use ideas to drive the network.

In the past 10 years, a large number of technologies will be updated and iterated, and new technologies will continue to emerge. At that time, it may be possible to use big data to understand people's ideas.

There are many difficulties in the implementation

At present, 5g has not yet been popularized. As far as 6G is concerned, there is no clear goal and formal vision. Therefore, R & D of all enterprises and countries belongs to early theoretical research and development.

However, in the field of communication, there is a popular saying that "one generation should be used, one generation should be studied and one generation should be reserved". Now the 5g standard has been initially formulated, and the whole standard will be completed under the 3GPP framework around 2021. Now it's time to start the research and development of 6G. Let's see what are the shortcomings of 5g. We need 6G to supplement it.

At the same time, although the prospect of 6G is bright, there are still many technical and implementation problems to be solved, mainly focusing on the following points——

       1. Route scheme needs to be verified

"At present, international communication technology research and development institutions have put forward a variety of technical routes to achieve 6G, but these solutions are still in the concept stage, and whether they can be implemented still needs to be verified." Experts said that the wireless communication center of olu University in Finland is the first institution in the world to start 6G research and development. At present, it is starting to study from four fields: wireless connection, distributed computing, equipment hardware and service application.

Wireless connection uses terahertz or even higher frequency radio waves to realize communication; distributed computing uses artificial intelligence, edge computing and other algorithms to solve the time delay problem caused by a large amount of data; equipment hardware is mainly for terahertz communication, and the corresponding antenna, chip and other hardware are developed; service application is to study the possible application fields of 6G, such as automatic driving, etc. "At present, there are only these four directions, and the specific details are not clear yet.".

It is understood that the information and communication technology center of SK group of South Korea once put forward a 6G technical solution of "terahertz de cellular high-altitude wireless platform (such as satellites)" in 2018, which not only applies terahertz communication technology, but also thoroughly changes the existing mobile communication cellular architecture, and establishes an integrated space-ground communication network.

       2. Space reuse technology is difficult

In terms of technology, 6G will use "space multiplexing technology", and 6G base station will be able to access hundreds or even thousands of wireless connections at the same time, and its capacity will be 1000 times of that of 5g base station. As mentioned above, 6G will use terahertz frequency band. Although this high frequency band has rich frequency resources and large system capacity, mobile communication systems using high frequency carriers will face severe challenges in improving coverage and reducing interference.

When the frequency of the signal exceeds 10 GHz, the main propagation mode is no longer diffraction. For NLOS communication links, reflection and scattering are the main signal propagation modes. At the same time, the higher the frequency, the greater the propagation loss, the closer the coverage distance and the weaker the diffraction ability. These factors will greatly increase the difficulty of signal coverage.

       3. High cost of popularization and Application

"Further investment in wireless communications is essential." When it comes to the deployment of base stations, the number of base stations will increase, but the number of base stations will increase, and the cost will increase. The second solution is to use higher frequency communication, such as terahertz or millimeter wave. However, high frequency requires higher hardware equipment such as base station and antenna. Now the cost of terahertz communication hardware test is very high, which is beyond the affordability of general research institutions. In addition, in terms of the number of base station antennas, there are only 8 antennas in 4G base stations, 64, 128 or even 256 antennas in 5g, and more antennas in 6G. The replacement of base stations will also increase the application cost.

"Without changing the existing communication frequency band, it is difficult to realize the vision of 6G only by means of algorithm optimization, and it is not realistic to replace all base stations." Experts believe that in the future, it is likely to adopt a non independent networking mode, that is, to deploy 6G equipment on the basis of the original base station and other facilities. 6G will coexist with 5g or even 4G and 4.5g networks. 6G is mainly used in densely populated areas or high-end applications in vertical industries such as automatic driving, telemedicine and intelligent factories.

Although there are still many difficulties in 6G, in the field of communication, technological progress is an eternal topic. In particular, after experiencing the stage of "1g blank, 2G following, 3G breakthrough, 4G parallel, 5g leading", China's communicators have deeply understood a truth, that is, whoever enjoys more intellectual property rights and patents in the field of mobile communication can enjoy more discourse power, and it is obviously the goal of China's communication industry to have greater achievements in the field of 6G One.

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