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Wireless mesh network technology and its application

Author: Shenzhen Science and technology time: July 22, 2020 source: egibl.com
Absrtact: in recent years, wireless network has made great progress. Many new wireless communication technologies and standards have emerged for different applications and requirements, and wireless mesh network is one of the new technologies that attracts people's attention. ...

In recent years, with the rapid development of wireless network, many new wireless communication technologies and standards have emerged for different applications and requirements, and wireless mesh network is one of the new technologies that attracts people's attention. WMN is a new networking technology, namely mesh network. Its topology is dynamic and has the functions of self-organization and self-healing, that is, it can automatically form a network without human intervention, and each terminal can join or exit freely. In the process of information transmission, the information is continuously transmitted to the destination terminal by multi hop method. If we use this technology to network wireless sensors, Wi Fi (wireless fidelity), WiMax (worldwide inter operability for microwave access) and other technologies, we can extend their application range and strengthen their functions, thus forming wireless sensor networks, improving the coverage of wireless local area networks, and building metropolitan area networks. Because of its broad application prospects, it has been paid more and more attention and applied to life and work.

1 WMN Technology

1.1 technical principle

Wireless mesh network (WMN) is a low-power multi hop system. It processes messages by transferring packets from one node to another until the packets arrive at their destination. The point-to-point network node filters out all packets, leaving only its own packets. Unlike this, mesh nodes receive packets to be transmitted to other nodes and transmit them again. Each node of wireless mesh network can be used as an access terminal, and can also have routing and information forwarding functions, which has a high degree of networking freedom. Wireless mesh networks operate like the Internet and provide multiple redundant communication paths from the source to the destination. If a path stops working due to hardware failure or interference, the mesh network will automatically change the routing of packets and make them go through an alternative path.

1.2 network structure

There are two types of nodes in WMNs: router or client, among which the router which is the backbone of the network has very little mobility. They provide gateway and bridge functions for the mesh network to connect with other networks (such as Internet, cellular network, IEEE802, sensor network); the client can be static or mobile, and the clients can network by themselves or jointly with the routers in the mesh network.

1.3 main features

Wireless multi hop. By reducing the transmitting power of wireless nodes, the multi hop transmission between nodes is realized, which can not only effectively reduce the energy consumption of nodes, but also reduce the interference between nodes, and improve the spatial multiplexing of wireless channel, so as to improve the network capacity.

Self organization and self repair ability. Wireless mesh network has the advantages of flexible networking, easy configuration, self-healing, mesh distribution of nodes, strong network scalability, and can realize multi-point to multi-point wireless communication.
Mobility. Depending on the type of node, routing node mobility is required to be minimum and client node can be flexibly moved.

Access mode. It is flexible and diverse, and can be combined with Internet, cellular network, sensor network and so on.

Energy consumption mode. In general, there is no strict restriction on the energy consumption of routing nodes, while power efficient protocols are usually required for client nodes.

Compatibility and interoperability. It has good compatibility with existing wireless networks and strong interoperability.

2 WMN protocol

From another point of view, WMN topology and architecture analysis, it absorbs the advantages of star and mesh networks, is a seamless integration of the two. This fusion is achieved by implementing WMR (wireless mesh routing) protocol on network nodes (see Figure 1).

 Figure 1 WMN protocol based on wmp.jpg

WMN based WMN protocol

As can be seen from Figure 1, in order to provide multiple reflection wireless routing function, WMR routing protocol is implemented at both the access point and the mobile node. At the same time, in order to realize the compatibility with IP, WMR is placed between MAC layer and IP layer as an intermediate layer protocol, so WMR protocol can be implemented well without making too much changes to other protocol layers. In this way, WMR can be compatible with most existing applications, including the wireless standard represented by 802.11x.

3 advantages of WMN

Compared with traditional wireless network, WMN has many advantages

(1) Reliability is greatly enhanced

The grid topology structure adopted in WMN avoids the service convergence, central network congestion, interference and single point failure caused by centralized control mode, such as 802.11 WLAN and cellular network, which brings additional cost investment of reliability assurance.

(2) With conflict protection mechanism

WMN can identify the link that causes collision, and the angle between the link and its own link is obtuse angle, which can reduce the interference between links.

(3) Simplify link design

WMN usually requires shorter wireless link length, which reduces the cost of antenna (transmission distance and performance). On the other hand, it reduces the transmission power, which will reduce the interference between RF signals of different systems and system self-interference, and finally simplifies the design of wireless link.

(4) Increased network coverage

Due to the introduction of WR and IAP, end users can access the network at any place or connect with other nodes. Compared with the traditional network, the range of access points is greatly enhanced, and the spectrum utilization is improved, and the system capacity is increased.

(5) Flexible networking and convenient maintenance

Due to the networking characteristics of WMN network itself, as long as a small number of wireless devices such as WR are added in the required places, a wireless broadband access network can be formed with the existing facilities. The routing characteristics of WMN network make link interruption or local expansion and upgrade not affect the operation of the whole network, so it improves the flexibility and feasibility of the network, and is more powerful and perfect than the traditional network.

4 practical application

Mesh network has a broad application prospect in many fields such as home, enterprise and public places.

(1) Family

One of the important uses of wireless mesh network is to build a home wireless network. Home wireless mesh network can connect Desktop PC, notebook computer, HDTV, DVD player, game console and other consumer electronic devices without complicated wiring and installation process. In the home wireless mesh network, all kinds of home appliances are not only users of the network, but also provide access services for other devices as part of the network infrastructure. When the number of household appliances increases, this networking method can provide more capacity and larger coverage. Another advantage of wireless mesh network in home applications is that it can support applications with high bandwidth concentration, such as high-definition video.

(2) Enterprises

At present, most of the wireless communication systems of enterprises adopt the traditional cellular telephone wireless link to provide point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transmission for users. Wireless mesh network is different, it allows network users to share bandwidth, eliminates the bottleneck of single hop network, and can realize the dynamic balance of network load. It is also easier to add or adjust AP in wireless mesh network than wired AP, with more flexible configuration and lower installation and use costs. Especially for those enterprises that need to move access points frequently, the multi hop structure and flexible configuration of wireless mesh network will be very conducive to the adjustment and upgrading of network topology.

(3) School

Campus wireless network is very similar to large enterprises, but it also has its own characteristics. One is Campus WLAN The scale of the network is large, not only the geographical scope is large, the user is many, but also the communication volume is big, because compared with the ordinary enterprise user, the student will use the multimedia more; the second is the high request of the network coverage, the network must be able to realize the seamless roaming between indoor, outdoor, auditorium, dormitory, library and public places; third, the load balance is very important, because the students often have to concentrate Activity, when students use the network in a certain location at the same time, communication congestion may occur.

The traditional way to solve these problems is to install AP with high density indoors, while the number of AP installed outdoors is very small. However, due to the great changes in the user requirements of campus network, it is possible to often need to add new AP or adjust the deployment location of AP, which will bring great cost increase. The wireless mesh network is not only easy to upgrade and adjust the network structure, but also can realize seamless roaming between outdoor and indoor.

(4) Hospital

Wireless mesh network also provides an ideal networking solution for public places such as hospitals. Due to the dense and complex structure of hospital buildings, some areas also need to prevent electromagnetic radiation, so it is one of the most difficult areas to install wireless network. The hospital network has the characteristics of difficult wiring and high requirements for network robustness. Wireless mesh networking is an ideal solution to solve these problems. If you want to adjust the wireless network topology of the hospital, you only need to move the location of the existing mesh node or install a new mesh node. The process is very simple, and the installation of new mesh node is also very convenient. The robustness and high bandwidth of wireless mesh make it more suitable for deployment in hospitals.

(5) Places for tourism and leisure

Wireless mesh network is very suitable for those places which are geographically remote and difficult to be wired or economically uneconomical, but need to provide users with broadband wireless internet access, such as tourist sites, resorts, motels, etc. Wireless mesh networks can provide broadband services for these locations at the lowest cost.

(6) Rapid deployment and temporary installation

For those places that need rapid deployment or temporary installation, such as exhibitions, trade fairs or disaster relief, wireless mesh network is undoubtedly the most economical and effective networking method. For example, if you need to hold a meeting or an exhibition in a certain place for a few days, the cost can be minimized by using wireless mesh network.

Conclusion

WMN not only has a broad application prospect in many fields, such as family, enterprise and public places, but also can monitor or collect data for target objects by combining data and image acquisition module, and is widely used in environmental detection, industry, transportation and other fields. With the continuous updating and improvement of other technologies, WMN is better integrated and complementary with it, so as to develop its advantages and avoid short hair.


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